**Mouse controls with the 3D Viewer**

2.
**Middle click / hold and move:** Scale the size of the moving object (in 3D Viewer standalone cube, tetrahedron, icosahedron with
**Alt+P+T** indexable)

3.
**Left click / hold and move:** Change the viewing direction

4.
**Right click / hold and move:** Scale the distance between the observer and the object

**Key controls with the 3D Viewer and Graphics**

1.
**ESC:** Pause screen update (press again to continue screen updating)

2.
**Numeric Key 1 (keep pressed):** Show path/cam movement in real time

**Pull-down menu Spline Type:** Type of the cam motion to be used

**Y:** Y-follower axis base values (on the same lead axis a Y- and/or a Z-follower axis can be defined)

**Z:** Z-follower axis base values (on the same lead axis a Y- and/or a Z-follower axis can be defined)

**Smooth:** Smoothing distance, i.e. sided distance from the lead axis base point, where a smoothing polynomial is to be inserted

**DeltaP (only for optimization):** sided Y- and Z-point distance, in which the points may vary during an optimization run (contains the text box DeltaP/R a -1 the values are taken from the base table, otherwise the values of DeltaP/R are global for all intermediate points except the first and last)

**aCap:** if set to 1 the second derivative resp. the acceleration is capped from Poly7 upwards

**PolyY:** Polynomial degree 1, 3, 5 or 7 of the polynomial segment for the Y-axis (only for PTP-splines)

**PolyZ:** Polynomial degree 1, 3, 5 or 7 of the polynomial segment for the Z-axis (only for PTP-splines)

**vStartY:** 1st derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the start of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degrees 3, 5, 7)

**vEndY:** 1st derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the end of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degrees 3, 5, 7)

**aStartY:** 2nd derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the start of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degrees 5, 7)

**aEndY:** 2nd derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the end of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degrees 5, 7)

**jStartY:** Third derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the start of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degree 7)

**jEndY:** Third derivative of the Y-follower axis curve at the end of the segment (only useful for PTP-splines and polynomial degree 7)

**vStartZ bis jEndZ:** analogously for Z-axis instead of Y-axis

**Pull-down menu Smooth:** Type of the smoothing polynomials to be used

**Time:** Moving time for the lead axis

**StartRamp:** Share of the start ramp in the entire moving time (e.g. 0.5 means 50% here)

**StopRamp:** Share of the stop ramp in the entire moving time (e.g. 0.5 means 50% here)

**Pull-down menu Move Type:** Type of the ramp of the lead axis movement (setting Poly1 here means that the lead axis is moving without ramps, i.e. the lead axis can be modeled with a constant speed (defined by the X-base point area divided by the Time). If the radio button X is clicked and the X/t button is on t, then the lead axis is plotted in the graphics window.

In the graphics window, by left clicking on the X button it is switched between cam definition (X) and timing (t). The display of the derivatives or the velocity, acceleration and jerk can individually be switched on or off (click on 1, 2, or 3, or v, a, j). With a right click on 3 (or j) the product of the first and second derivative (or a*v as a measure for power) is shown instead of the third derivative (or the jerk).

When optimizing, a linear spline fit is generated, i.e. a spline, which goes through the given base points very dynamically. The spline is to be defined in X, Z and when the radio button Y is selected during an optimization run, the progress is displayed there graphically.

**Pull-down menu Spline Type:** Type of the path motion to be used

**X, Y, Z:** Space coordinates of the base points

**RX, RY, RZ:** Space orientations at the base points

**DeltaP / DeltaR (only for optimization):** sided space coordinate or orientation distance, in which the points/orientations may vary during an optimization run (contains the text box DeltaP/R a -1 the values are taken from the base table, otherwise the values of DeltaP/R are global for all intermediate points except the first and last)

**TangX, TangY, TangZ:** when having Cubic, Quintic or Septimic splines: the first line defines the start tangent vector (TangX, TangY, TangZ), with which a robot movement starts in a cubic, quintic or septimic spline (quasi the spatial direction), the second line defines the end tangent vector with which you want to stop a spline motion. When having Linear or PTP splines: the first line defines the base robot offset, the second line the corresponding sided space distance. With CAMs the values are irrelevant.

**Energy:** if checked the total energy is minimized during an optimization run, otherwise the path curvature is minimized (except for PTP movements, there only the load energy is taken into account)

In the graphics windows the complete power consumption is shown in the upper window, in the window below by selecting **X** the first 3 robots arms positions [m resp. rad] are visualized (also during an optimization run), by selecting **Y** the last 3 robots arms positions [m resp. rad] (also during an optimization run) and by selecting **Z** again the first 3 robots arms positions [m resp. rad] (not updated during an optimization run). If **v / Energy** is checked then instead of the positions the robot arms velocities [m/s resp. rad/s] are visualized, if additionally **a / Gen** is checked then instead of the velocities the robot arms accelerations [m/s^2 resp. rad/s^2] are visualized, if additionally **T / Path** is checked the robot arms torques [Nm] resp. forces [N] are visualized.

**Genetic:** if checked an optimization run is started using Genetic Algorithms, otherwise Hill Climbing Algorithms are used

**Loop:** used in the 3D viewer to display an optimization run